|Women's Provillus - Ingredients
Minoxidil 5% is the only FDA-approved topical ingredient clinically
proven to regrow hair in men and women. Minoxidil is a "potassium channel
agonist." It contains the chemical structure of Nitric oxide (NO), a blood
vessel dilator, and may be a nitric oxide agonist. This may explain
Minoxidil's ability to stimulate hair growth and treat hair loss. Since
Minoxidil is a nitric oxide related compound it was suspected to act via
activation of Guanylate cyclase, an enzyme involved in vasodilation, however
there are no reports of cGMP or PKG activation to date.
Azelaic Acid 5% (pronounced az-uh-LAY-ic) is a simple molecule (
HOOC(CH2)7COOH, CAS Number 123-99-9, also known as 1,9-Nonanedioic acid)
that is found in some whole grains and in trace amounts in human bodies.
Although it is an acid, it is an extremely weak acid - much weaker than
vinegar. A research report by Stamatiadis in 1988 suggested that azelaic
acid was a strong type I 5-alpha reductase (5-AR) inhibitor.
Vitamin B6 is a part of B-complex vitamins. It is a water-soluble
vitamin and exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and
pyridoxamine. Vitamin B6 has many functions in the body and its deficiency
can lead to many disorders including hair loss.  Vitamin B6 helps in
optimal nerve function, immunity, digestion of protein and red blood cell
production. Studies have shown that Vitamin B6 promotes hair growth and
prevents hair loss. 
Biotin, a constituent of Vitamin B complex plays an important role in
metabolism of fat and carbohydrate. The vitamin has various functions in
body including maintenance of healthy skin, hair and nails and deficiency
state has been shown to cause hair loss.  
Magnesium, an essential mineral, is indispensable for chemical
reactions in the body including energy metabolism, protein synthesis,
neuromuscular transmission, bone structure and hair growth.  
Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) extract has been shown to have high
silica content, cystine (amino acid) and sulfur. It is a potent
antimicrobial and antioxidant.   
Para-aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) is considered as a member of Vitamin B
and is important constituent of folic acid molecule. It is an antioxidant
synthesized in the body. It has an important role in protein metabolism. It
is a very potent sunscreen and has shown to return gray hair to its original
color. The molecule is essential for microbial function in the intestine.
1. Prendiville, Manfredi. Skin signs of
nutritional disorders. Semin Dermatol. 1992 Mar;11(1):88-97.
2. Brzezinska-Wcislo L. Evaluation of vitamin B6 and calcium pantothenate
effectiveness on hair growth from clinical and trichographic aspects for
treatment of diffuse alopecia in women. Wiad Lek. 2001;54(1-2):11-8.
3. Charles et al. Biotin-responsive alopecia and developmental regression.
Lancet. 1979 Jul 21;2(8134):118-20.
4. Pawlowski, Kostanecki.Effect of biotin on hair roots and sebum excretion
in women with diffuse alopecia. Pol Med J. 1966;5(2):447-52.
5. Cotton, Porters, Spruit. Magnesium content of the hair in alopecia areata
atopica. Dermatologica. 1976;152(1):60-2.
6. Tataru, Nicoara. Idiopathic diffuse alopecias in young women correlated
with hypomagnesemia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004 May;18(3):393-4.
7. Stajner, Popovic, Canadanovic-Brunet, Boza. Free radical scavenging
activity of three Equisetum species from Fruska gora mountain. Fitoterapia.
8. Radulovic, Stojanovic, Palic. Composition and antimicrobial activity of
Equisetum arvense L. essential oil. Phytother Res. 2006 Jan;20(1):85-8.
9. Oh, Kim, Cho, Kim. Hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging
activities of phenolic petrosins and flavonoids isolated from Equisetum
arvense. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec;95(2-3):421-4.
10. Gaby AR. The story of PABA. Nutr Healing 1997;March:3–4, 11.
11. Zarafonetis CJD. Darkening of gray hair during para-amino-benzoic acid
therapy. J Invest Dermatol 1950;15:399–401.